Lets turn Africa worse and negative development and turn them into anything we want. It would be extremely good if we can through out the mental creativity make a few professional, qualified, earn, gain knowledge and own the things they badly must have. Slum in real translation is isolation, restriction, blockage, lack of access. If you want to know a real slum citizen look no further, because you already have one. You can call him chief of slum an experience which last for few however it is decades of experience this to him. So, back to slum. What are slums? Refugees, homeless, loneliness(having no family in a place), jobless, spiritually broken, prison, crime that cause a dear thing in a person's life are slums and consequences of slums.
In general, no one want to be a slum, gang, rebel, crackers(hacker) conditions of time do push few to slum. Slum is not the end and is not the beginning or all of them. In many states and continent it is imbalance of supply of resources, development etc caused by governments, leaders, community civil society. It is also lack of information or distribution of different information or poor analysis of information favouring one side of a state, town or word to another. Most of them are about jobs, education, higher living standard, abundance etc. Slum is also a result of hate of one tribe or group of people leaving them totally out of a functional system.
How to get out
If there was a formula, we should have all gotten out. A common thing with homeless people who got out are just like successful people-they are truely working themselves out and trying anything they can think of. It is also because of voluntary slum-people who are stricken because of a thing e.g. just want to finish their school and get out or have a special condition which need a little time but they are out of pocket money and worse conditions.
Charity begins at home freaks! you really cannot sign a foreign project e.g. electricity, roads, irrigation etc yet the people have everything and lack everything e.g. there are city slum, they have access to food, good sanitation however lack finance, employment and skills to transfer same knowledge into helping themselves out.
slum people are no different to ordinary people. They have exactly the problem every people of the state have e.g. have skills, qualification, ideas however, have no support, help, and money to make it physible.
leaders and governments of a place should totally be ban from solving another state continent problem if it exist in their state and continent. Read the funny story of a fisherman it corresponds. A fisher should treat stream, or river same because fish in stream and creaks are same in all areas. In short problems they have so have you.